Approximately 80% of the country is forest, Truong Son Mountain ranges are along the border adjacent to Laos, Red River Deltas and Mekong River Deltas are formed by the two rivers spreading in the North and the South, respectively. (Figure 1)
With about 3,200km of coastline, long sandy beaches and mangroves, and international ports such as Hai Phong, Da Nang, Cai Mep-Chi Bai have been constructed in several provinces. Viet Nam, which spreads from the North to the South, has two different climate regions: a subtropical climate with 4 seasons in the North, a tropical monsoon climate in the South with high humidity all year and 2 seasons: dry and rainy season. In addition to the influence of the monsoon, Viet Nam has become the path for storms and tropical cyclones mainly in the Central from July to November causing heavy rains, floods, landslides, that has resulted in serious damages.
Law on natural disaster management (No. 33/2013/QH13, revised in 2020) identifies 22 types of natural hazardssuch as: flood, typhoon, landslide. The average number of deaths per year caused by natural hazardsin the past 20 years is nearly 400, economic loss has accounted for 1~1.5% of GDP (MARD (2020)). Among these, the most serious disasters are the water-related disasters especially floods and landslides that occur every year. In 10 years, from 2007 to 2017, it is estimated that about 90% of casualties and economic loss caused by natural hazards are related to such water disasters as storms, flood, erosion, and landslides (JICA (2018a)).
Based on these background, in 2021, the Vietnamese government developed the National Strategy on natural disaster prevention and control to 2030, with a vision toward 2050 (No. 379/2021/QD-TTG) (hereinafter referred to as “National Disaster Prevention Strategy 2030, a vision toward 2050"). This strategy has indicated countermeasures to be taken in responding disaster types in different regions, specifically divided into the Northern deltas, Northern Central, Northern and Northern Central mountains, Central coast, southwestern highland and southeastern region, Mekong delta, big cities, oceans and islands. The target by 2030 is to reduce damage caused by storms and floods by 50%, equivalent to 1.2% of GDP compared to the period 2011-2020.
In this report, I would like to introduce the flood control conditions in some rivers based on the historical and specific characteristics of each region: the Red River, a major rive in the North, the Vu Gia – Thu Bon River, the Huong River in the Central Coast, and the Mekong River along the Mekong Delta in the South.